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Animal By-Products (ABP): Site Approval, Hygiene, and Disposal – A Comprehensive Guide

12th June 2023

Welcome to Affordable Waste Management! We are specialists in waste management, and we’re here to help you navigate of animal by-products (ABPs). Gain insights into their safe utilisation, obtaining site approval, navigating the necessary paperwork, and ensuring appropriate disposal. ABPs encompass animal carcasses, animal parts, or materials derived from animals that are not intended for human consumption. 

Trust us to efficiently and responsibly manage ABPs.

ABP waste Explained

The utilisation of ABPs involves two options:

  • destruction;
  • conversion into compost, biogas, or other valuable products.

Understanding ABP Categories

ABPs are classified into three categories based on the associated risks:

Category 1 ABPs: High-Risk Materials

This category includes:

  • Carcasses and body parts of animals suspected of having transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)
  • Carcasses of wild animals suspected of carrying diseases transmissible to humans or animals
  • Carcasses of animals used in experiments
  • Animal parts contaminated due to illegal treatments
  • International catering waste
  • Carcasses and body parts from zoo, circus, or pet animals
  • Specified risk material, such as cows’ spinal cords, posing specific disease risks

Category 2 ABPs: High-Risk Materials

This category includes:

  • Animals rejected from abattoirs due to infectious diseases
  • Carcasses with residues from authorised treatments
  • Unhatched poultry that died inside the shell
  • Carcasses of animals euthanized for disease control purposes
  • Carcasses of dead livestock
  • Manure
  • Digestive tract content

Category 3 ABPs: Low-Risk Materials

This category includes:

  • Carcasses or body parts approved for human consumption at a slaughterhouse
  • Animal products or foods originally intended for human consumption but withdrawn for commercial reasons (not due to being unfit for consumption)
  • Domestic catering waste
  • Shells from shellfish containing soft tissue
  • Eggs, egg by-products, hatchery by-products, and eggshells
  • Aquatic animals and both aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates
  • Hides and skins from slaughterhouses
  • Animal hides, skins, hooves, feathers, wool, horns, and hair without signs of infectious disease at death
  • Processed animal proteins (PAP) derived from any Category 3 ABP, excluding certain exceptions

Site Approval or Registration: What You Need to Know

If your site involves the use of ABPs, it must be approved or registered by the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA). The requirement for approval or registration depends on the nature of your site and the ABPs handled.

Sites Requiring Approval

You need approval if your site functions as a:

  • Processing facility
  • Biodiesel factory
  • Pet food manufacturing site
  • Combustion site
  • Commercial compost or biogas/anaerobic digestion site
  • Organic fertiliser or soil improver production site
  • Site where boilers utilise tallow as fuel
  • High or low capacity incinerator site
  • Handling or storage plant
  • Site storing derived products

Steps for Site Approval

To obtain site approval, complete an application form demonstrating:

  • Your knowledge of setting up and operating the plant
  • Identification of high-risk areas on your site
  • An effective plan to control risks
  • Maintenance of hygiene in common areas like canteens, offices, waste water plants, and boilers
  • Protocols for managing cross-contamination and handling spillages of ABPs or processed products
  • Procedures for equipment maintenance, cleaning, and addressing faults

Disposing of small quantities of ABPs

  1. If you are a retail business producing a total weight of less than 20kg of raw or partially cooked meat, fish, or shellfish waste per week, you can send this waste to landfill each week.
  2. There is no need to register with APHA; however, you do need to keep records of the type and approximate weight of ABPs sent to landfill each week.
  3. This weekly limit applies specifically to retail businesses and is not an average limit over a number of weeks.
  4. Disposal methods for different categories of ABPs are regulated to ensure proper handling and prevent the spread of diseases. 

Here are the approved disposal methods for each category:

Category 1 ABPs

Category 1 ABPs, which are classified as high risk, must be disposed of through specific methods. 

You can only dispose of Category 1 ABPs by:

  • Incineration or co-incineration: ABPs are burned at an approved incineration plant or co-incinerated at a facility equipped to handle them safely.
  • Processing followed by incineration or co-incineration: ABPs can be processed using methods 1-5, and after permanent marking using GTH (glycerol tri heptanoate), they are incinerated or co-incinerated.
  • Pressure sterilisation: In some cases, pressure sterilisation is allowed, except for possible cases of TSE (transmissible spongiform encephalopathy) or animals killed under TSE eradication laws. After pressure sterilisation and permanent marking, the ABPs can be disposed of in a landfill.
  • Combustion: Category 1 ABPs can be used as fuel for combustion at an approved combustion plant.
  • Burial at an authorised landfill: International catering waste can be sent for burial at an authorised landfill.

Category 2 ABPs

Category 2 ABPs are also classified as high risk and require specific disposal methods. 

You can only dispose of Category 2 ABPs by:

  • Incineration or co-incineration: Category 2 ABPs can be incinerated or co-incinerated without prior processing or with prior processing, followed by marking with GTH.
  • Landfill: After processing by pressure sterilisation and marking with GTH, Category 2 ABPs can be sent to an authorised landfill.
  • Organic fertilisers/soil improvers: Category 2 ABPs can be processed and transformed into organic fertilisers or soil improvers after marking with GTH.
  • Composting or anaerobic digestion: Category 2 ABPs can be composted or subjected to anaerobic digestion after processing by pressure sterilisation and marking with GTH. However, certain ABPs like milk, milk products, eggs, egg products, digestive tract content, and manure do not require processing, provided there is no risk of spreading serious transmissible diseases.
  • Land application: In some cases, Category 2 ABPs like manure, digestive tract content, milk, milk products, and colostrum can be applied to land as a fertiliser without processing.
  • Combustion: Category 2 ABPs can be used as fuel for combustion.

Cosmetic products, medical devices, and industrial/technical uses: Category 2 ABPs can be used in the manufacture of certain cosmetic products, medical devices, and for safe industrial or technical purposes.

Category 3 ABPs

Category 3 ABPs are classified as low risk, and their disposal methods are less stringent.

You can only dispose of Category 3 ABPs by:

  • Incineration or co-incineration: Category 3 ABPs can be incinerated or co-incinerated at approved facilities.
  • Composting: Category 3 ABPs can be composted under controlled conditions to produce organic fertilisers or soil improvers.
  • Anaerobic digestion: Category 3 ABPs can undergo anaerobic digestion to produce biogas and organic fertilisers.
  • Land application: Category 3 ABPs, such as crop residues and vegetable waste, can be applied to land as a soil amendment or used as animal bedding.
  • Animal feed: Certain Category 3 ABPs can be processed and used as animal feed, provided they meet the necessary safety requirements.
  • Rendering: Category 3 ABPs can be sent to rendering facilities where they are processed to extract fats and proteins for various uses, including animal feed and biodiesel production.

It is important to note that when disposing of ABPs, proper documentation and record-keeping are essential. You should maintain records of the type and quantity of ABPs generated, as well as the disposal method employed. These records may be required for compliance purposes and to demonstrate that appropriate disposal measures have been taken.

Additionally, it is crucial to follow any regulations and guidelines set forth by local authorities and regulatory bodies regarding the disposal of ABPs. These regulations may vary depending on the region, so it is important to consult with the appropriate authorities or seek professional advice to ensure compliance.

By adhering to the approved disposal methods and maintaining proper documentation, you can contribute to the safe and responsible management of animal by-products, minimising potential risks to human and animal health, and protecting the environment.

If you have any questions or need further information about ABPs or their categorization, feel free to reach out to us. Together, let’s ensure responsible and sustainable practices in the handling of animal by-products 0333 015 3522 

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